Diabetes Specific Outcome Measures


Diabetes Distress

Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID): a short, patient reported outcome measure of  diabetes-related distress for use in adults with diabetes. Three versions are available: the original 20-item version, a 5-item version, and a 1-item version

Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS): The DDS is a 17-item scale that captures four critical dimensions of distress: emotional burden, regimen distress, interpersonal distress and physician distress. First published in 2005, it has been used widely around the world as a clinical instrument for opening conversation with one’s patients as well as a critical outcome measures in numerous studies. This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research. However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.


Diabetes Self-Management

Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA): The SDSCA measure is a brief self-report questionnaire of diabetes self-management that includes items assessing the following aspects of  the diabetes regimen: general diet, specific diet, exercise, blood-glucose testing, foot care, and smoking.

Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire-Revised (DSMQ-R): The DSMQ-R is a 20+7-item questionnaire used to assess self-care activities associated with glycaemic control based on theoretical considerations and a process of empirical improvements. The DSMQ-R consists of 4 subscales (20 items in total): ‘Glucose Management’ (GM), ‘Dietary Control’ (DC), ‘Physical Activity’ (PA), and ‘Health-Care Use’ (HU), as well as a ‘Sum Scale’ (SS) used as a global measure of self-care were derived. An additional 7-item Insulin specific subscales can be used to assess a patient’s activities regarding their insulin usage where necessary. Please contact the developer for more information.